Globalization Measurement & Key Players

The most well-known index for globalization is the KOF index. The KOF Index of Globalization was introduced in 2002 by the KOF Swiss Economic Institute and the index was published by Axel Dreher and his team. The overall index measures the economic, social, and political dimensions of globalization. Now data is available on a yearly basis for 122 countries, and the 2007 index introduces an updated version of the original index. In constructing the indices of globalization, the variables are transformed to an index on a scale of 1 to 100, where 100 is the maximum value for a specific variable over the periods and 1 is the minimum value. Higher values denote greater globalization. According to the index, the world’s most globalized countries are Belgium, Austria, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands.

The least globalized countries are Haiti, Myanmar, the Central African Republic, and Burundi. Another very popular measure of globalization is the joint publication of A. T. Kearney Foreign Policy Magazine Index (KFP). The KFP aims to provide a comprehensive measure of the extent of globalization across the world by assessing and ranking 62 countries, representing all the major regions that account for 96 percent of the world’s gross domestic product (GDP), and 85 percent of the world’s population. The KFP index concentrates on four main dimensions of globalization: economic integration, technological connectivity, personal contact, and political engagement. According to the KFP Index, in 2006, Singapore, Ireland, Switzerland, the United States, the Netherlands, Canada, and Denmark were the most globalized countries, while Egypt, Indonesia, India, and Iran were the least globalized countries in the list.

Antiglobalization (mundialism) is a term used to describe the political, economic, and sociological stance of people, groups, and organizations who oppose the neoliberal ideology of globalization. Some antiglobalization groups and organizations are the International Institute for Sustainable Development; the International Forum on Globalization; Greenpeace; the World Wide Fund for Nature; Oxfam; Friends of the Earth International; the Center for International Environmental Law; Public Citizen; Consumers International; the World Conservation Union; Focus on the Global South; One World; the Third World Network; the International Center for Trade and Sustainable Development; and the Center for Research on Globalization. Some antiglobalization individuals are Naomi Klein, George Monbiot, Martin Khor, Mary Robinson, Joseph Stiglitz, Noam Chomsky, Dani Rodrik, and John Ralston Saul.

Pro-globalism (globalism) is a term used to describe the political, economic, and sociological stance of people, groups, and organizations who defend the neoliberal ideology of globalization, such as free trade, economic freedom, libertarianism, and democratic globalization. Some pro-globalization groups and organizations are the International Policy Network; Sustainable Development Network; the Competitive Enterprise Institute; the Cato Institute; the Institute of Public Affairs; the American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research; World Growth; the Heritage Foundation; WTO; IMF; World Bank; and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Some pro-globalization individuals are Johan Norberg, Douglas A. Irwin, Jeffrey Sachs, Jagdish Bhagwati, Martin Wolf, Philippe Legrain, and Mike Moore.



Source by Francesco Zinzaro

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